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1. a.  Fraction of the dose remaining in the body is related to the elimination rate
constant (K) and dosage interval (T)'- Explain with proper example.
b. Level of steady-state during MDR depends on dose and dosing interval-Explain in
relation to plateau principle of MDR given intravenously.
c. What is accumulation index (R)? What are the different approaches to express R?
The value for R must be greater than 1 during MDR'-Explain with example.
d. Differentiate between tp and ca, What will be the values t and t„,„, for a drug
given every after 8 hours and whose absorption and elimination rate constants are
0.9 hr-land 0.07 hr-1, respectively?
e. What is meant by degree of fluctuation? What is the problem associated with
Cr?a„ How can you minimize this fluctuation during MDR given intravenously?

2. a. How much time (in relation to ) would it be required to attain 99% of the steady
state level during intravenous infusion?
b. What is the purpose of giving loading dose? What is the loading dose for an antibiotic (k= 0.23 hr-1) with a maintenance dose of 200 mg giving intravenously
every 3 hours?
c. A patient was infused for 6 hours, with a drug (k: 0.01 hi-4, \id= 10L) at a rate of 2 mg/hr. What is the concentration of the drug in the body 2 hours after cessation
of the infusion?
d. Draw and explain typical curves for intravenous infusion with or without loading

3. a, What are the basic principles of dosage adjustment during renal disease? Explain in
Mention the underlying causes of kidney failure.
c. What are the ideal characteristics of a compound to be used as kidney marker?
d. How will you measure creatinine clearance by Nomogram? Explain. What are the
limitations of such method?
e. What is the creatinine clearance for a 25 year old-female patient with C„ of 1
mg% and a body wt. of 80 kg? Use Jellife method.

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